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The TerraSAR-X satellite, developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and EADS Astrium GmbH, was launched on June 15, 2007 from the Baikonur cosmodrome and launched into a circular solar synchronous orbit with an altitude of 514 km with an inclination of 97,44°. The satellite is equipped with the latest synthetic aperture radar, which allows radar imaging of the earth's surface with ultra-high spatial resolution of up to 1 m, which makes the TerraSAR-X satellite system one of the most advanced tools for remote sensing of the Earth.

Moscow, TanDEM-X ©Astrium GEO-Information Services
Rome, TerraSAR-X ©Astrium GEO-Information Services, VV polarization
Rome, TerraSAR-X ©Astrium GEO-Information Services, HH polarization, 24.11.2007
Madagascar, TanDEM-X ©Astrium GEO-Information Services
Ukraine, TanDEM-X ©Astrium GEO-Information Services
On the 21th of June the second satellite TanDEM-X was successfully launched. The joint operation of the two satellites makes it possible to fully use interferometric technologies and to produce high-precision interferometry with centimeter accuracy, as well as to provide global coverage of the earth's surface with high-precision DTM with an accuracy of less than 2 m.

Spacecraft design and mission details

Name

TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X

Country

Germany

Developer

DLR, Airbus Defence and Space (ex-EADS Astrium)

Operator

Astrium GEO-Information Services (an international company, established on the basis of Spot Image and Infoterra)

Launch vehicle

Dnepr 1

Launch date

15 June 2007 and 21 June 2010

Launch site

Baikonur Cosmodrome

Date of deactivation

-

Orbit:Type

Altitude, km

Inclination, deg.

Sun-synchronous

514,8

97,44

Mission duration, years

11

Power, W

800

Mass, kg

1230 and 1340


The radar surveys the earth's surface in the X-wavelength range (3.1 cm) with variable polarization of radiation (HH, VH, HV, VV), in the range of shooting angles from 20 ° to 55. The probability of performing the ordered survey is approximately 95%, as the radar survey is weatherproof and does not depend on the time of day. Also, the radar data from the TerraSAR-X satellite are provided within a few hours, which makes them in demand when solving operational problems.


Specifications:

Parameter

Value

Parameter

Value

Antenna type

Active phase array

Beam scan angle range

±0,75° (az), ±19,2° (el.)

X-band center frequency

9,65 GHz (3,1 cm wavelength)

Incidence angle access range

15° - 60°

Antenna aperture size

4,8 m × 0,8 m × 0,15 m

Radiated peak power

2260 W

Phase centers

12 (az.) × 32 (el.)

Stripmap duty cycle

18% (on transmit)

Polarization modes

HH/VV/HV/VH
(single or dual)

Spotlight duty cycle

20% (on transmit)

System noise figure

5,0 dB

Operational PRF range

3000 – 6500 Hz

Selectable BAQ compression rates

8 to 4, 3, 2, by-pass

ADC sampling rates (8 bit, I&Q)

110, 165, 330 MHz

Max receive duty cycles

100%, 67%, 33%

Chirp bandwidth range

5 – 300 MHz

SSMM capacity

320 Gbit (BOL)
256 Gbit (EOL)

TSX-SAR instrument mass

394 kg

Quantization of signal

8 bit I, 8 bit Q

SAR data compression

Online BAQ

Nominal look direction

Right side of groundtrack

Yaw steering

Yes


Scanning modes and types of commercial products

Images can be obtained in three shooting modes: SpotLight, StripMap and ScanSAR. Single, double and quadruple polarization is possible, the use of which depends on the shooting mode.

TerraSAR-X has a unique response time, which allows you to select any shooting mode and polarization option within 1-3 seconds, which corresponds to a displacement of the shooting area of ​​7-20 km. Multipolarization and left / right side shooting options are available. The satellite’s turn for two-sided shooting is carried out in less than 5 minutes.

Satellite programming is carried out twice a day with the prioritization of tasks for data acquisition and a short time of two-way exchange of information during data transfer and subsequent changes in tasks is provided.

The data obtained have the following levels of processing according to the CEOS standard:

Level 0. Restored raw instrumental data at the original resolution with all available additional information for use in subsequent processing.

Level 1A. Unpacked, reformatted level 0 data at full resolution with all additional information for use in subsequent processing.

Level 1B. Radiometric corrected and calibrated data with full instrumental resolution, as they were obtained.

Levels 2,3 and 4. Different degree of extraction of environmental parameters (for example, ocean wave height, soil moisture, ice concentration) with the same resolution and location as in Level 1 data.

Based on the data obtained by the three shooting modes, Basic images (products) are created, allowing the user to choose according to needs, whether they are amplitude-phase parameters for interferometry or already orthorectified data array for real-time mapping.

Basic Products are images processed up to level 1B of the CEOS format, which contain the following geometric projections and data representations:

Single Look Slant Range Complex (SSC) – complex radar images with slant range with amplitude-phase parameters in slant range geometry.

Multilook Ground Range Detected (MGD) – adjusted by WGS84 with an average height of the terrain for a projection with a slant on the horizontal range.

Geocoded Ellipsoid Corrected (GEC) – adjusted for WGS84 with an average terrain height.

Enhanced Ellipsoid Corrected (EEC) – adjusted by WGS84 with digital terrain model (DTM).

Together with TerraSAR-X Basic Products, Infoterra offers the following Advanced and Geo-Information Products:

  • Orthorectified images (ORI)
  • Radiometric Calibration (RC)
  • Radiometric Normalization (RN)
  • Mosaics (MC)
  • Oriented Images (OI)
  • Merging up and down scenes (ADM)
  • Ortho Maps (OM)
  • Updated maps (CDM)

Scanning modes

SpotLight

StripMap

ScanSAR

HS

SL

Spatial resolution, m

1

2

3

16

Swath width, km

10×5

10×10

30×50 – simple
15×50 – double

100×150

Polarization

Simple VV/HH;
Double HH and VV

Simple VV/HH;
Double HH and VV, HH and HV, VV and VH

Simple VV/HH

File format

CEOS

Processing

Radiometric, sensory and geometric correction,

leading to a cartographic projection, creating DEM and derived cartographic products

Frequency of shooting

In 95% of cases – 2.5 days; Maximum – 4.5 days

Lead time

1–3 days for archival data; 1–6 days for custom shooting

24 hours for priority order

Minimum order size

One standard scene for any of 4 modes

Delivery format

Direct transmission; On-Line FTP; courier services

 

Applications:

  • creation of digital terrain models (DTM) of high accuracy;
  • study of relief changes caused by various factors;
  • measurement of ground movement by the interferometric method;
  • highly accurate monitoring of the state of infrastructure networks (pipelines, railways, telecommunications);
  • seismic hazard assessment, earthquake prediction;
  • all-weather observation of natural and man-made disasters (floods, fires, accidents);
  • control of coastal zones and observation of vessels;
  • control over the use of natural resources;
  • observation of natural disasters and their consequences;
  • conducting research in various fields;
  • mapping areas with high cloudiness.

For cost calculation of the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X imagery for your area of interest, send technical description of your proposal to: innoter@innoter.com. For consultations contact by the phone: +7 495 245-04-24

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