Photogrammetry is the science that studies the shapes, sizes, and positions of objects from images with the aim of creating plans and maps.

Photogrammetric processing (Image Processing) involve the method or process of transforming images obtained through ground-based, aerial, and space imaging into a specified projection and obtaining geometric and semantic information, such as shape, size, distances, spatial position, etc., of objects imaged from their images on space imagery.

Why are Photogrammetric processing (Image Processing) necessary?

Photogrammetry can solve tasks for two main areas of activity: creating maps, plans, and other cartographic products from imagery and solving applied problems in architecture, construction, medicine, forensics, geodesy, etc.

In the field of cartography, photogrammetric processing is used for the production of maps, plans, orthophotoplans, digital elevation models, and also for providing cadastral tasks with necessary spatial data. The scope of applied tasks for photogrammetry continues to expand, including 3D modeling.


Goals and Objectives of Photogrammetric processing (Image Processing):

The goal of photogrammetry is to transform images obtained from ground-based, aerial, and space imagery of the Earth's surface into a specified projection while eliminating distortions caused by the terrain relief, deviations of the imagery axis from the vertical during aerial imagery (tilt angle), atmospheric correction, and other distortions that occur during images. This process is used to create products and solve the following tasks:

  • Compilation of topographic maps and plans;
  • Engineering-topographic plans for surveying purposes;
  • Design and construction of buildings and structures on specific sites or their parts;
  • Archaeological excavations and research;
  • Automation of spatial modeling of objects from space imagery;
  • In military applications: for topographic and special maps, photo documents, densification of control geodetic networks, determination of target and own forces coordinates, trajectory research, flight speed of projectiles and rockets, etc.;
  • Computer games (creation of three-dimensional models of game objects, realistic landscapes)


Advantages of Using Remote Sensing Data in Photogrammetric Measurements:

Remote sensing data from space of ultra-high and high resolution can be obtained more promptly as they may already be available in operator archives, and new images does not require any approvals from competent authorities. The area covered by one space image significantly exceeds the area covered by imagery obtained from an aircraft or UAV.

Aerial remote sensing images acquired from the lens of aerial cameras onboard aircraft or UAVs have high visual informativeness and excellent measurement properties, but they require more time for images, as there is a need for flight approval, movement of the aircraft (UAV with operators) to the imagery area, and higher data cost per square kilometer.

Prices for services

Consultation on Photogrammetry Free of charge
Photo Image Retrieval, Preliminary Analysis Free of charge
Order of Remote Sensing Data (RSD) Images From 0.5 to 100 USD per 1 km2 depending on the characteristics of the images (archive-new, mono-stereo, resolution)*
Stereo Processing of RSD Materials From 4 USD per 1 km2
Point Cloud Processing From 15 USD per 1 km2
Creation of Digital Terrain Models (DTM) / Digital Elevation Models (DEM) From 8 USD per 1 km2

Individually calculated for each specific order and depends on the amount of processed RSD data, the presence (or absence) of ground control points, and the type of DTM used.

Orthophoto or Orthomosaic (Digital Orthophoto Framework Production - DOFP) Cost From 1 USD per 1 km2
Individually calculated for each specific order and depends on the amount of processed RSD data, the presence (or absence) of ground control points, and the type of DTM used.
Photogrammetry Execution Time From 1–2 working days (depends on the volume, complexity category, and availability of archive aerial photography)

The price of photogrammetry is directly determined by the cost of ordered images and the complexity of the execution (based on the number of images covering the area of interest, the availability of ground control points, and the digital terrain model). It is individually calculated for each customer's order.

The cost of execution is calculated on an individual basis, taking into account a specific of task.

After receiving the task description, we calculate the cost and send you a commercial offer.

Period of execution

Approval of the technical specification for photogrammetry: from 1 to 5 days*
Conclusion of photogrammetry contract: from 1 to 5 days
Receipt of images: from 3 days **
Then space image processing: from 3 days
TOTAL: from 3 days **

** working days
** from the date of receipt of 100% advance payment

Estimation of photogrammetry rendering time usually depends on the total area, number of processed materials and their type (mono-stereo) and is calculated individually for each customer.

How to place an order:

  1. STEP #1: Submit an Application on the Website with the Following Information:
    • Location of the object of interest (name of the district, region, shapefile, etc.);
    • Requirements for the time of imagery(period for which archive data can be used or the need for new imagery);
    • Requirements for the quality of imagery (mono-stereo, angles of aerial image tilt, resolution on the ground, cloud cover, sun angle, panchromatic or multispectral imaging, etc.).
  2. STEP #2: Agreement on the Technical Specification and Photogrammetry Cost:
    • Photogrammetry services - the price is negotiated in each specific case;
    • Images are paid separately (from 8 to 200 USD per 1 km2 depending on the imagery type (archive-new, mono-stereo, resolution).
  3. STEP #3: Contract Signing and Commencement of Photogrammetry:
    • Completion within 5 working days from the date of receiving 100% advance payment for remote sensing data materials - payment is made only by bank transfer. The remaining payment is made after the completion of the process.

We cooperate with individuals, legal entities, individual entrepreneurs, government and municipal authorities, foreign customers, etc.

Need for consultation?

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By clicking the «Send» button, you give your consent to the processing of your personal data, in accordance with Federal Law No. 152-FZ of July 27, 2006 «On Personal Data», on the conditions and for the purposes specified in the Consent to the processing of personal data.

Stages of service provision

Stage № 0 (BEFORE the contract conclusion):

  • Determining the dates and parameters of the desired imaging (period and type);
  • Checking for the availability of archived images of the area of interest;
  • Verifying the selected archived imagery for compliance with the customer's requirements and specifications;
  • Sending a request to the operator (centers) for new spatial imagery (if necessary).

RESULT: Is photogrammetry possible (YES/NO)?

Stage № 1 (BEFORE the photogrammetry contract conclusion):

  • Coordination with the customer of the information available in the archives of operators;
  • Coordination with the customer, if necessary, of the satellite from which the new imagery will be taken, along with the timing and parameters;
  • Coordination with the customer (if necessary) of the accuracy requirements for ground control points and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) for orthorectification;
  • Coordination of requirements for the coordinate system and projection of the finished product;
  • Final determination of labor and material costs, agreement on delivery time and cost.

RESULT: Signed contract for photogrammetric services with the customer

Stage № 2 (execution of the photogrammetry contract):

  • Receiving 100% advance payment;
  • Ordering frames of satellite imagery;
  • Incoming control of remote sensing data frames;
  • Stereoprocessing of frames (using specialized software) and obtaining Digital Terrain Model (DTM) or Digital Surface Model (DSM) (if necessary);
  • Orthorectification of frames and creation of seamless orthophotomosaic;
  • Color correction and cloud cover correction of the resulting orthophotomosaic;
  • Cutting the image into nomenclature sheets (if necessary);
  • Exporting information into various coordinate systems and projections.


  1. Digital Terrain Model (Digital Surface Model) in accordance with the requirements of the Technical Task;
  2. Seamless orthophotomosaic of the area of interest, in formats, projections, and coordinate systems as specified in the Technical Task.

The result of the provision of services

Creating an Intermediate or Final Product from Remote Sensing Data:

  • 3D model based on stereoprocessing of materials;
  • Obtaining Digital Terrain Model (DTM) or Digital Surface Model (DSM);
  • Composing orthophotos or orthophotomosaics.

GEO INNОTER provides the Customer who requested photogrammetric services with the finished product according to the Technical Task on electronic media or through the Internet via FTP servers.

Requirements for Source Data for Photogrammetry:

Accurate coordinates of the area of interest, requirements for Remote Sensing data (resolution on the ground, type, maximum viewing angle, minimum solar angle, maximum allowable cloud cover, period).

Indicator Name Scale
1:500 1:1000 1:2000 1:5000 1:10000 1:25000 1:50000

GCP accuracy:

- in the plane, m

- in height, m






















Contour accuracy:

- in the plane, m;

- in height, m






















Image resolution

on the ground Lм, m















If there is no possibility to provide the specified information, provide information for what purposes it is planned to use the materials of remote sensing of the earth surface for photogrammetry, and specialists of LLC "GEO "INNOTER" will analyze the requirements and offer the best option to solve the problem.

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Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
The material was checked by an expert
Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
Engineer, 28 years of experience, Education - Moscow Topographic Polytechnic Technical School, St. Petersburg Higher Military Topographic Command School named after Army General A.I. Antonov, Military Engineering University named after V.V. Kuibyshev. Kuibyshev Military Engineering University.



Photogrammetric work will require:
  • territory of interest (location of the object in any convenient form, and area of the object);
  • date or time interval for which archival imagery can be selected or new imagery can be taken;
  • survey requirements (angle of the image, sun angle, resolution, type of survey, cloud cover)
The terms of photogrammetric processing (Image Processing) execution depend on the area of the territory, requirements to the survey parameters. The minimum term of photogrammetric works execution is from 5 working days
100% prepayment on the invoice for materials of remote sensing of the earth surface after signing the contract of photogrammetric processing (Image Processing) , the rest of the payment after the photogrammetric processing.
  • Objects are studied using a non-contact (remote) method, which is of particular importance in situations where the object is inaccessible or when staying in the object's zone is unsafe for human life.
  • The ability to obtain information about the condition of the entire object and its individual parts in a short period, for example, satellite images of the Earth's surface can be obtained within a few days.
  • High labor productivity due to the fact that measurements are made not on the objects themselves but on their images.
  • Complete objectivity and reliability of measurement results, as images of objects are obtained through imagery means.
  • High measurement accuracy, as the imaging of objects is done with precision cameras, and the images are processed using strict methods with the help of precise instruments and electronic digital computers.
Photogrammetry is a scientific discipline that studies the shape, size and position of objects based on images in order to create plans and maps. The science that allows using imagery, image processing methods and special technologies to obtain images and determine the spatial position of physical objects on the ground and their characteristics is called photogrammetry. In addition, photogrammetry can be considered as a new technology of remote sensing in determining geometric properties of objects, processes, analyzing them and providing information in graphical form on a group of images taken from different camera positions. The basis of the photogrammetry method is images. The study and measurement of the geometry of the physical image of the images gives this basis a level of scientific approach and practical application Photogrammetry - Also called metrophotography, phototopography, and topophotography, it is a method of obtaining a ground plan by means of photography. Any photographic image represents a perspective image Photogrammetry - The use of photographic images to measure distances and areas in geodesy. Photographs taken from airplanes or orbiting satellites Photogrammetry - A scientific and technical discipline concerned with determining the size, shape, and position in space of various objects from their photographic images.
The technical basis for the formation of photogrammetry was the invention of photography by the Frenchman Daggerome in 1839. In 1851-1859, Frenchman Lassedat developed a graphic version of photogrammetric drawing of plans of constructions based on their ground photographs. Creation of aeronautics provided an opportunity to move from ground engineering photography to aerial photography. In 1858 Frenchman Nadar took the first photographs from a balloon. This was an important step in the development of photogrammetry - the aerial photo was closer to a terrain plan in its geometry. The first aerial photographs from a balloon in Russia were taken on May 18, 1886. A.M. Kovanko. St. Petersburg was photographed by V.N. Sreznevsky's aerial camera from altitudes of 800, 1200 and 1350 meters. In 1910 the pilot Gelgar received the first photographs from an airplane in Russia. At first, aerial photography was used mainly for military reconnaissance purposes. The emergence and development of electronic computer technology significantly influenced the technology of photogrammetric image processing. Methods of spatial analytical phototriangulation were developed and widely used. There comes a period of creation and use of analytical stereophotogrammetric devices. Transformational functions in them were performed by computers. A device of this class - stereoanagraph - was created in our country. This period (60s - 80s of the XX century) was a transition to the stage of digital photogrammetry. Digital image processing technologies are currently the main technologies for cartographic and engineering works.
The main application of photogrammetry is considered to be the creation of topographic maps based on photographs taken with specialized cameras. Cameras used to capture images from ground points are called photogrammetric theodolites, and the process of capturing images is referred to as photogrammetric. Cameras utilized in the aerial surveying process from aircraft, helicopters, or unmanned aerial vehicles are simply called aerial cameras, and the corresponding surveying is referred to as aerial photography.

Application of Photogrammetry in Film and Gaming Industry

In recent years, photogrammetry has found its place in the modern film industry, and the 3D technology for generating volumetric images in films has gained special popularity among young audiences. The art of animation has always captivated audiences with its mesmerizing end results in the form of popular animated films.

  • Combined Method of Cartography: The main difference between the combined method and the stereotopographic method is that in the combined method, aerial photography is used only for creating the contour part of the maps.
  • Stereotopographic Method of Cartography: With the stereotopographic method of cartography, all processes of image processing are carried out on universal photogrammetric instruments (UP, AUP, stereoplotters).

Currently, the coordinates XS YS ZS can be determined using GPS, and angular elements can be determined using inertial systems. However, since these systems can be expensive and may experience malfunctions, they are not always used. Therefore, the photogrammetric method of determining the elements of exterior orientation is employed - based on control points.

Control points are points whose coordinates are determined on the ground, typically in the Gauss geodetic coordinate system, and they are identified on the aerial imagery. By measuring the coordinates of the control points on the operator, a direct or inverse relationship between the points on the iimagery and the corresponding points on the ground can be established.

Photogrammetric processing of the survey is preceded by preparatory work, which includes the following steps:
  • Preliminary processes:
a) Collecting, studying, and evaluating the initial shooting and cartographic materials, materials from field topographic-geodetic surveys;
b) Work technical designing of the operator processing processes;
c) Preparation of necessary materials and source data;
d) Preparation of technical equipment;
e) Preparation of editorial instructions;
f) Training of engineering-technical personnel and operators;
  • The preparatory processes are further detailed as follows:
  • Collecting, studying, and evaluating the initial shooting and cartographic materials, materials from field topographic-geodetic surveys;
  • Work technical designing of the photograph processing processes;
  • Preparation of necessary materials and source data;
  • Preparation of technical equipment;
  • Preparation of editorial instructions (Editorial instructions are developed based on the technical project using all the primary and additional materials and the results of their analysis. Special attention is paid to poorly recognizable features of the terrain/surface, as well as features that cannot be directly identified from the main aerial photographs. For such features, sources are listed from which they can be displayed on the original photographs.);
  • Training of specialists for the execution of the work.

Photogrammetry uses all modern surveying tools, including professional digital cameras, television surveying systems, scanner laser systems, radar systems and others. Photogrammetric cameral processing consists in measuring images on special optical and mechanical devices (stereo comparators), allowing to obtain plan and height (spatial) position of objects on images, to observe them in four-dimensional coordinate system with changes in time and further compilation of topographic plans and maps.
  1. High measurement accuracy;
  2. High degree of automation in the measurement process, leading to the objectivity of their results;
  3. High productivity (as measurements are performed on images of objects rather than the objects themselves);
  4. Possibility of remote measurements in situations where human presence on the object is unsafe.

Photogrammetric processing involves extracting geometric information from images captured by aerial or terrestrial cameras. It contributes to mapping and surveying by enabling the creation of accurate and detailed maps, 3D models, and terrain information through the analysis of overlapping images.
Ground control points are reference points on the Earth's surface with known coordinates. In photogrammetric processing, these points are used to georeference and scale images accurately. The inclusion of ground control points ensures the reliability and precision of the derived spatial information.
Stereo imagery involves the use of overlapping images captured from slightly different perspectives. In photogrammetric processing, stereo pairs are used to create a three-dimensional effect, allowing for accurate depth perception. This is essential for creating detailed 3D models of the terrain or objects captured in the images.
Digital Surface Models (DSMs) represent the Earth's surface, including both natural features and built structures, while Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) focus on the bare ground without considering surface features. In photogrammetric processing, these models are used for applications such as urban planning, flood modeling, and landform analysis.
Advancements in sensor technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and computational capabilities have significantly influenced the efficiency and accuracy of photogrammetric processing. High-resolution cameras, GPS, and advanced algorithms enable faster data acquisition, processing, and the generation of detailed and precise spatial information from images.



We guarantee 100% quality of services. Cooperating with GEO Innoter specialists, you exclude risks and losses!

The availability of qualified personnel with extensive experience and specialized software allows us to ensure timely and high-quality execution of photogrammetric works!

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