3D City Modelling (Digital twins) is the process of creating virtual or realistic three–dimensional models that allow you to represent the size, shape, appearance and other detailed characteristics of an object or territory with maximum geometric accuracy by remote sensing methods: space, air or ground (surface, underwater), allows you to represent the observed object or territory from all angles.

3D City Modelling (Digital twins) is applied in various fields, including:

  • Cartography purposes;
  • Landscape design. Understanding the terrain's shape is essential for planning water accumulation areas and determining suitable locations for planting;
  • Building and construction design, BIM construction;
  • Construction of roads, highways, interchanges, and railways. The research involves not only studying the terrain but also assessing potential settlement levels and determining groundwater that may affect construction;
  • Environmental protection measures;
  • Scientific research: many researchers across various disciplines use 3D models for their studies;
  • Everyday use in mobile phones, navigators, etc;
  • Military and maritime applications;
  • Informational support for project decisions;
  • Creating models of objects based on design documentation and terrain models using remote sensing data;
  • Optimizing the placement of designed objects considering the environment and infrastructure;
  • Visualizing changes in landscapes;
  • Disaster modeling and personnel training for emergencies, and more.

Goals and Objectives of 3D City Modelling (Digital twins) Services:

The tasks are determined by the capabilities of the software, which allows solving the main directions of high-detail imaging and measurements:

  • Creating a 3D topographic base for design and survey works;
  • Geometric 3D measurements of engineering structures;
  • Updating 3D maps of the terrain;
  • Building mathematical models using the intensity of laser pulse reflections;
  • High-precision decoding of terrain objects;
  • 3D models for thematic mapping, especially for complex construction projects (bridges, interchanges, ports, train stations, airports, quarries, etc.), BIM, CAD-CAM, and other modern construction technologies.

Thus, 3D modeling is commonly used in urban planning, industrial and infrastructure construction, forestry, emergency situations, geology, development of coastal marine and river areas, and more.

Advantages of Using Remote Sensing Data

  • Conduct detailed studies from a distance;
  • Perform visual assessments of the spatial arrangement of objects considering terrain features and their heights;
  • Analyze the spatial arrangement of various industrial infrastructure structures;
  • Obtain and evaluate the true relief of the terrain;
  • Select objects on the model to obtain semantic information, edit the appearance and characteristics (semantics) of objects, perform measurement and calculation operations, determine coordinates, and conduct detailed terrain evaluations in office conditions.
A three-dimensional model allows relatively accurate determination of building and other structure heights. The absolute accuracy of the model based on satellite images is +/- 3 meters, while for UAV imagery, it is 1-5 cm.

Rostov Veliky, Kremlin fragment using a combination of video and digital photos, visible and IR images from UAV.

Prices for services

Consultation Free of charge
Data collection, preliminary analysis Free of charge
Ordering Remote Sensing Data From $1 to $500 per 1 km2, depending on the type of remote sensing data (satellite imagery, aerial photography, point clouds, etc.) *
Execution Period From 15 working days (depending on the volume, complexity category, and availability of archival remote sensing data)

The price depends on the requirements and is calculated individually for each customer.

The cost of data collection and object modeling using aerial laser scanning (ALS) methods is generally comparable to traditional surveying methods, and on large areas or distances, the cost is lower.

The cost of execution is calculated on an individual basis, taking into account a specific of task.

After receiving the task description, we calculate the cost and send you a commercial offer.

Period of execution

The deadline is from 15 (fifteen) working days and is calculated individually for each Customer.

The deadlines depend on the complexity category of creating a remote sensing model, the number of processed remote sensing source data and is calculated individually for each Customer.

How to place an order:

  • Step 1: Submit an Application on the Website with the Following Information:
    • Description of the task that requires the creation of a 3D model based on aerospace or laser survey materials;
    • Location of the object of interest (coordinates, name of the city, region, shapefile, etc.);
    • Requirements for the timeframe (period for which archival data can be used or the need for new surveying);
    • Quality requirements (stereosurvey parameters, convergence angles, resolution, cloud cover, sun angle, panchromatic or multispectral survey, ALS parameters, point cloud density, etc.).
  • Step 2: Agreement on Technical Specification and Cost:
    • The cost is discussed on a case-by-case basis;
    • Remote Sensing Data (RSD) materials are paid separately (from $0.1 to $200 per 1 km2, depending on the type of data).
  • Step 3: Contract Signing and Commencement of Work:
    • Timeframe: 15 working days from the date of receiving 100% advance payment for RSD materials - payment is only accepted via bank transfer. The remaining payment is made after completion.

We collaborate with individuals, legal entities, individual entrepreneurs, government and municipal authorities, foreign customers, etc.

You can also submit your application via e-mail: innoter@innoter.com, or contact us by phone: +7 495 245-04-24, or use the online chat on the website.

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By clicking the «Send» button, you give your consent to the processing of your personal data, in accordance with Federal Law No. 152-FZ of July 27, 2006 «On Personal Data», on the conditions and for the purposes specified in the Consent to the processing of personal data.

Stages of service provision

Stage 0 (PRE-Contract) - Express Assessment:

  • Agreement on the task that requires creating a 3D model.
  • Evaluation of the technical feasibility of solving the Customer's task using remote sensing methods. Assessment of the Customer's equipment performance and resources for 3D modeling.
  • Determination of dates and parameters for the desired aerial, spaceborne, or laser survey (period, type, etc.).
  • Checking for the availability of archival materials for the area of interest.
  • Verification of selected archival stereo images to meet the Customer's requirements.
  • Requesting operators for new or speculative surveying (if necessary).

RESULT: Possibility (YES/NO) of providing the service.

Stage 1 (PRE-Contract)

  • Ordering aerial or satellite imagery from scratch.
  • Agreement with the Customer on the format of 3D data.
  • Agreement with the Customer, if necessary, on the type of aerial or UAV apparatus for new surveying, as well as its timeframe and parameters.
  • Final determination of labor and material costs, agreement on delivery deadlines and cost.

RESULT: Signed contract.

Stage 2 (Contract Execution):

  • Receiving 100% advance payment for Remote Sensing Data (RSD) materials.
  • Conducting the survey (spaceborne, aerial, or UAV).
  • Deciphering.
  • 3D modeling.
  • Integration of 3D data into GIS.

If it's construction monitoring:

  • Topographic plans and GIS layers.
  • High-precision digital elevation models and digital terrain models.
  • 3D models of objects (CAD, 3D MAX, DGN), including textured models.
  • Dimension sheets and specifications of various objects.
  • Profiles, cross-sections, and sections of objects.
  • Virtual 3D models of the terrain and video flyovers. Multimedia.


The results of the performed work are delivered to the Customer in electronic format, in the formats agreed upon in the Technical Specification.

Figure: CMM of the "Borisoglebsky Monastery Ensemble." Russia.

The result of the provision of services

Creation of the final product based on Remote Sensing Data (RSD), according to the Customer's Technical Specification:

  • 3D models integrated into topographic plans at scales of 1:2,000 - 1:10,000;
  • Results of object monitoring with detected changes in 3D.
  • 3D topographic plans integrated into GIS layers.
  • High-precision digital elevation models and digital terrain models. Generation of DEM/DTM based on stereo images obtained from spaceborne, aerial, or UAV platforms. Digital Height Matrix (DHM).
  • Multimedia video of the terrain with a flyover of the 3D model.
  • Orthophotoplans complementing the spaceborne stereo data with laser scanning for increased accuracy, as per the Customer's Technical Specification;
  • Perspective aerial photographs (only for airborne laser scanning) as per the Customer's Technical Specification.
  • New spaceborne stereo imagery or aerial frame scanning (UAV). Point cloud data. Convenient image formats for the Customer.
  • Information about objects and territories obtained through spaceborne or laser scanning.

GEO INNOTER delivers the finished products to the Customer who requested the satellite imagery, according to the Technical Specification, on electronic media or via the Internet using FTP servers.

Requirements for Source Data

Accurate coordinates of the area of interest, requirements for spaceborne or laser survey materials (ground resolution, type, maximum off-nadir angle, minimum solar angle, maximum allowable cloud cover percentage, survey period, point cloud density).

If it is not possible to provide the specified information, please provide details about the intended use of the 3D model, and specialists from GEO INNOTER will analyze the requirements and propose an optimal solution.

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Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
The material was checked by an expert
Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
Engineer, 28 years of experience, Education - Moscow Topographic Polytechnic Technical School, St. Petersburg Higher Military Topographic Command School named after Army General A.I. Antonov, Military Engineering University named after V.V. Kuibyshev. Kuibyshev Military Engineering University.


Газпром нефть


  • The task to be solved using remote sensing data;
  • the territory of interest (location / coordinates of the object in any convenient form, and the area of the object);
  • the date or time interval for which you can select an archive survey or perform a new one;
  • shooting requirements
  • As a rule, the minimum order area for archival satellite images is 25 km2, and for new space photography – 100 km2. The minimum order bandwidth (the distance between the two nearest points), depending on the operator of the spacecraft, the shooting mode and the product, can be from 3 to 5 km.
  • For new and archival surveys: If the area of interest is a set of separate, unrelated polygons, the area of each of which is less than the minimum area to reduce the total cost, it is advisable to combine them into polygons, the area of each of which will be greater than the minimum area of the order.
  • As the technology becomes cheaper, lighter and smaller, more and more industries are starting to use laser scanning.
  • The deadlines depend on the area, the requirements for the shooting parameters. The minimum execution period is from 15 working days.
  • 100% prepayment on the invoice for remote sensing materials after signing the contract, the rest of the payment after completion.
  • YES. We cooperate with individuals and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs, state and municipal authorities, foreign customers, etc.
Urban modeling provides the most significant weight in the geospatial data market. In general, the construction process synthesizes technological and methodological achievements in the field of geospatial information and geoinformatics, paying special attention to three-dimensional models of cities. Using BIM approaches as a resource for presenting information about buildings and managing them during operation.
  • Modeling of planning scenarios.
  • Visualization of large projects. Cars and human flows.
  • Analysis of the visual impact of new designs.
  • Territorial design.
  • Analysis of the influence of the landscape on the distribution of flows.
  • Support when making a decision.
  • Public discussion of projects.
Common vectors and GIS capabilities can represent 3D:

  • Managing layer display styles.
  • Applying different styles to layers.
  • Implementation of complex 3D objects, including animated ones.
  • Library of three-dimensional objects.
  • The accuracy and amount of data is limited only by the characteristics of the equipment used.
  • Using labels, tags, etc., including with data from external sources.
  • Unlimited scaling of the model.
  • Progressive "resolution" of bitmaps for high performance.
  • Export high-quality bitmap images and animations.
  • 3D flight in real time.
  • Display of pointer localization (x,y,z).
  • Relief magnification, a change in the design of the model.
  • Anaglyphic vision (stereo).
  • Screenshots.
  • Search by coordinates.
  • Managing thematic views (playback of recorded positions or sequences, navigation pointer).
  • Multi-criteria search.
  • Consultation of information about the object, hyperlinks.
  • Layer visibility control.
  • 2D cartographic overview.
  • And others, at the request of the Customer.
To create a three-dimensional model of the city, you will need special software and hardware. In the process of creating the model, the elements are vectorized in stereo mode. Initial data for modeling:

  • city plans;
  • cartographic materials;
  • space monitoring data;
  • images obtained as a result of aerial photography;
  • digital terrain models.

With the advent of ultra-high-resolution satellite images, the task of creating detailed and sufficiently accurate models of the urban area has become solvable with the use of high-tech methods of remote sensing data processing.
  • The ability to create models with very high geometric detail.
  • For each type of building, only one model is created. This model is loaded once during visualization and is used for all buildings of the same type. This significantly saves memory and reduces the size of the 3D city model on disk.
  • Textures do not contain images of foreign objects projected onto building walls. Texturing is done manually, and all images are processed by the operator before texturing. The processing includes removing unnecessary objects from photos, such as trees or cars, aligning images in terms of brightness and tone, and often removing shadows.
  • Three-dimensional buildings are individual objects that can be associated with any attribute information.

The 3D GIS technology allows creating a unified information model of the city by integrating data from different sources. Both citizens and government authorities receive detailed information about the territory, relevant objects, and structures in a visual and comprehensive virtual space.

The city model facilitates orientation for tourists in unfamiliar cities and improves accessibility of information about the city and infrastructure facilities for residents, especially for socially vulnerable population groups.

In addition, the 3D GIS of the city helps in solving various urban management tasks, including:

  • Accelerating decision-making processes related to city planning, construction, reconstruction, and development in government bodies;
  • Analysis, modeling, and forecasting of various aspects of city life;
  • Simulating emergencies and conducting drills in virtual space;
  • Monitoring the city's situation from various perspectives.
  • High speed of creating city models. Thanks to a fully automatic process, three-dimensional models of even large cities are created in days, and not in years, as when using completely manual modeling.
  • High photorealistic. Texturing is performed automatically based on aerial or geo-linked ground camera images. Complete absence of standard textures from libraries. All facades of buildings look as it was at the time of shooting.
  • Low cost of creating a model due to the exclusion of manual labor of operators.
  • a schematic representation of objects does not give an idea of the facade (there is no possibility of additional control over the preservation of the historical appearance, preparation of additional materials for guests of the city), the height of buildings and exterior details (ramps, high sidewalks, etc.);
  • the decision-making process for planning, building, reconstruction of urban objects takes a lot of time;
  • registry systems and systems, based on a 2D plan, they are insufficient to solve a number of issues related to social protection, security, preservation and development of the cultural image of the city;
  • despite the availability of master plans and registry information of many cities on the Internet, they are quite difficult to navigate and they do not give an idea of the appearance of buildings and the urban environment as a whole.

Three-dimensional GIS, which have become widespread abroad, can solve most of these problems.
3D City Modelling (Digital twins) refers to the creation of a digital representation of a city in three dimensions. This model includes buildings, roads, landscapes and other physical features of the city. The purpose may be urban planning, architectural design, real estate visualization or for modeling and analysis purposes. The model can be created using various 3D modeling software, it can be viewed and controlled in real time, which allows interested parties to explore and visualize the city from different points of view.

Urban planning: Three-dimensional models of cities can be used to model and analyze various scenarios of urban planning, such as traffic flow, pedestrian traffic and the impact of new developments on the environment.

Real estate Development: Three-dimensional models of cities can be used to demonstrate the proposed properties, including buildings, infrastructure and public spaces. This can help provide funding and support for the project.

Emergency Services: Three-dimensional models of cities can be used by emergency services such as police and firefighters to simulate emergency scenarios and plan response strategies.

Virtual Tours: Three-dimensional models of cities can be used to create virtual tours of cities and attractions, allowing tourists to explore the city before visiting it.

Video Games: Three-dimensional models of cities can be used in video games to create a virtual environment with which players can interact. This can include everything from city streets to buildings and other urban objects.
a three-dimensional model of the city can help in the construction process, providing the following advantages: Planning and Design: This allows architects and engineers to visualize the project in 3D, providing a better understanding of the overall layout and design in the city. This helps to identify potential design flaws and make changes before construction begins. Communication: A 3D model can help improve communication between stakeholders such as architects, engineers, contractors and city authorities. This ensures a clear and general understanding of the project, reducing the risk of misunderstandings and misunderstandings. Construction modeling: The 3D model can be used to simulate construction
Remote sensing data contributes to 3D city modeling by providing information on terrain, buildings, and infrastructure. Sensors commonly used include airborne LIDAR, satellite-based stereo imaging, and photogrammetry techniques. These sensors capture elevation data and high-resolution imagery, essential for constructing accurate and detailed 3D city models.
Applications of 3D city modeling include urban planning, disaster management, infrastructure design, and visualization. These models enhance urban planning by providing a realistic representation of the city, aiding in decision-making, land-use analysis, and simulations for future developments.
Integrating multi-sensor remote sensing data enhances accuracy by combining information from various sources, such as LIDAR, optical imagery, and thermal sensors. This integration ensures a more comprehensive representation of the city, improving the realism and precision of digital twins used in urban planning and management.
4D city models include the temporal dimension, incorporating time-related data to represent changes in the urban environment over time. This dynamic representation allows for monitoring and simulating urban dynamics, such as construction progress, traffic patterns, and seasonal variations, providing a more comprehensive understanding of city evolution.
3D city modeling supports smart city initiatives by providing a foundation for data-driven decision-making and the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Remote sensing, with its ability to capture real-world data, plays a crucial role in creating intelligent urban environments by supplying accurate and up-to-date information for smart city applications, including traffic management, energy efficiency, and public services.


License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 1)
License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 1)
License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 2)
License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 2)
Application for the license for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities
Application for the license for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities
ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 1)
ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 1)
ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 2)
ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 2)


We guarantee 100% quality of service. By collaborating with GEO INNOTER specialists, you eliminate risks and losses!

The presence of qualified staff with extensive experience in working with specialized software allows us to guarantee timely and high-quality execution of projects!

Advantages of Collaborating with GEO INNOTER

  • Years of experience in the field;
  • Direct distributor agreements with spaceborne imaging operators;
  • Experience in executing projects of any complexity, both based on aerial photography and spaceborne imagery;
  • Availability of modern software for processing remote sensing data;
  • Robust server capacities for processing remote sensing data;
  • A team of highly skilled professionals in the fields of cartography and photogrammetry;

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