Forest Inventory - accounting of the forest, its material assessment: determining the age, height, and diameter of growing trees, timber stock, annual growth, forest plantations; qualitative assessment of the forest.

Forestry Survey - a complex of technical actions aimed at identifying, accounting for, and evaluating quantitative (stock) and qualitative (merchantability) characteristics of forest resources.

Why Forest Inventory is Needed

Forest inventory using deciphering methods is conducted to identify, account for, and assess quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forest resources (calculating the height and age of forest plantations, average diameter, average height, relative density, stand rating, stock per 1 ha).
Inventory is carried out before logging forest plantations for logging and sanitary purposes, as well as complete clear-cuttings for infrastructure projects, with the following result: re-measurement of the quantity and quality of the forest in a particular area, namely:

- determining the dimensions (height, diameter), age, species, number of growing trees, timber stock, and its annual growth for subsequent logging purposes.

Differences in Conducting Forest Inventory in Russia and in the European Union / Canada / USA:

The key task is to determine the volume of merchantable timber per hectare and per delineated canopy captured in the imagery, with known age and species composition. Other characteristics of the forest, as well as accounting for forestry activities and numerical estimation methods (sampling "strip" and others), are not considered. This is why it is easier to apply new DZZ technologies.
Moreover, in the USA / Canada / European Union, auditors accept data obtained by DZZ methods as the evaluation of merchantable timber stocks (forest resource assessment) with confirmation from reference areas.

Composition of Works for Assessing the Volume of Merchantable Timber:

  • counting the canopies per hectare and delineated areas.

  • determining the type of canopy closure.

  • determining (clarifying) the species composition.

  • calculating the timber volume using an approximate formula of canopy ratio for a given age and stem diameter for a given forest type.

Once again, clients of GEO INNOTER in the USA / Canada / European Union replace forest inventory entirely with this tool!

Objectives of Forest Inventory:

  • Obtaining timely information about the condition of forest plantations;
  • Identifying and studying the patterns of growth, structure, and merchantable timber composition.

Tasks of Forest Inventory:

  • Measurement and accounting of the stock of individual trees, stands, and forest plantations;
  • Accounting for the areas, volumes, and stock of the forest with the preparation of planimetric and cartographic materials;
  • Providing rare and valuable information about the forests that is relevant and up-to-date.


Objectives of Remote Sensing-based Forest Inventory (Satellite, Aerial Imagery, UAV):

The aim of forest inventory is to study the forest inventory indicators, observation units, and accounting based on modern information technologies.

Through inventory activities, tasks are solved to form an information base of the forest fund. This allows for the assessment of the state and dynamics of forest resources, maintain tables of stock, species, age, composition of existing forest plantations, and tree heights.

Main tasks of forest inventory:

  • Improvement of forest inventory methods, ensuring complete identification and reliable assessment of all resources and functions of forest plantations, and increasing the profitability of forestry on this basis;
  • Providing normative accuracy in determining forest fund indicators during forest inventory work on forest management units and ensuring the promptness of obtaining this information;
  • Creation and maintenance of a centralized database on the forest fund of the forest management unit, combining cartographic and inventory information (GIS technologies);

  • Forest inventory is conducted as a stage of continuous forest management, as planned work, or upon request by individual companies leasing forest areas for logging purposes and in some other cases.

Advantages of Using Remote Sensing Data:

  • Obtaining up-to-date and reliable data for forest management, improving the quality of work while reducing the time of their execution;
  • Exploring hard-to-reach forest areas;
  • Possibility of year-round work;
  • Reducing the time required for forest inventory;
  • Best balance of cost and quality of results obtained.

Prices for services

Consultation Free of charge
Aerial Imagery Collection, Preliminary Analysis Free of charge
Photo Order From $300 to $600 USD per photo (number of photos depends on the area of the territory)
Work of Technical Specialists From 70,000 rubles (calculated individually)
Total From 120,000 rubles (calculated individually)*

*The price for forest inventory by decoding method depends on the cost of ordered aerial photos and the complexity of the process (number of photos, their total volume, the number and complexity of questions posed, the number of calculated parameters) and is calculated individually for each client.

The cost of execution is calculated on an individual basis, taking into account a specific of task.

After receiving the task description, we calculate the cost and send you a commercial offer.

Period of execution

Term of taxation execution - from 10 (ten) working days, calculated individually for each customer.

How to place an order:

  • Step №1: Leave an application on the website with the following information:
    • Location of the research object (coordinates, cadastral number, etc.);
    • Required quantitative and qualitative characteristics (preparation of technical specifications);
    • Dates for conducting the monitoring.
  • Step №2: Coordination of technical specifications and price:
    • Work of technical specialists from RUB 70,000;
    • Images are paid separately.
  • Step №3: Signing the contract and starting the work
    • Duration is 10 working days from the date of receiving 100% advance payment - payment is only accepted via bank transfer.
  • We collaborate with individuals, legal entities, individual entrepreneurs, government and municipal authorities, and foreign customers.

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    By clicking the «Send» button, you give your consent to the processing of your personal data, in accordance with Federal Law No. 152-FZ of July 27, 2006 «On Personal Data», on the conditions and for the purposes specified in the Consent to the processing of personal data.

    Stages of service provision

    Stage № 0 (BEFORE signing the contract):

    • Preliminary study of the objects for assessment;
    • Determination of quantitative and qualitative indicators required for the research;
    • Definition of dates (research period);
    • Checking archival imagery of the area;
    • Verification of the feasibility of using the pre-selected images for the research;
    • Submission of a request to the operator(s) for a new survey (if necessary).

    RESULT: possibility (YES/NO) of providing the service

    Stage № 1 (BEFORE signing the contract):

    • Coordination of technical specifications with necessary parameters for conducting the research and ordering images;
    • Agreement on archival images or new survey (if necessary);
    • Final determination of labor and material costs, agreement on timelines and prices.

    RESULT: signed contract

    Stage № 2 (contract execution):

    1. Receipt of 100% advance payment;
    2. Ordering materials of space or aerial imagery;
    3. Confirmation of the authenticity of the images, including licensing;
    4. Primary processing of frames;
    5. Orthotransformation of frames (georeferencing);
    6. Selection of technical solutions for decoding frames, taking into account the actual quality of the photos;
    7. In-depth processing of aerial imagery;
    8. Visual and machine decoding;
    9. Conducting the research;
    10. Formation of a database of decoding results, including updating the numbering of sections and summarizing the balance of quarterly results;
    11. Creation of a geoinformation database on forests (in an agreed format);

    RESULT: written document (report)

    The result of the provision of services

    Geo innoter provides the following:

    • Report (forest inventory descriptions) including:
      • Identification of forest tree species / creation of a species map of the forestry;
      • Determination of forest canopy height;
      • Study of negative processes affecting forest areas: impact of pests and diseases, forest drying or overmoistening leading to degradation and mortality;
      • Identification of forest areas, partially or completely knocked down by hurricane winds, determining windthrow areas, calculating biomass;
      • Identification of existing cuttings and burn areas with documentary digitization of required accuracy;
      • Study of natural conditions that promote or hinder active forestry activities (identification of flat marshy areas, drained hollows, sharp changes in relief, etc.);
    • Geoinformation database on forests (in an agreed format);
    • Ready-made orthophotoplan or orthomosaic of the specified type and in the specified format (the transmitted data depends on the customer's request).

    Requirements for Source Information

    Accurate geographic coordinates of the object in the required coordinate system (specialists from Geoinnoter will refine the coordinates provided by the customer in any convenient form).

    Images submitted for examination should meet the criteria of time of shooting, spatial resolution, and availability of required spectral channels and have initial georeferencing by RPC.

    Orthotransformed images (georeferenced on-site) with the required accuracy.

    The mandatory condition for the application of the decoding method of forest inventory is the availability of remote sensing data with the following parameters:

    • Types of remote sensing data: color spectral (multispectral) stereoscopic digital aerospace images (spectral channels R, G, B, NIR);
    • Spatial resolution: not worse than 1 m (depends on the forest inventory class);
    • Remote sensing data should be obtained in stereo mode;
    • Solar elevation angle at the time of aerial and space imaging should be at least 25 degrees;
    • Time since the date of image acquisition should not exceed 3 years.

    The decoding method of forest inventory for the first and second forest inventory classes using images with a resolution up to 1 m per pixel (stereo is mandatory), and for the third forest inventory class for poorly managed forests using space images with a resolution up to 15 m per pixel (decoding method of forest inventory).

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    Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
    The material was checked by an expert
    Zazulyak Evgeny Leonidovich
    Engineer, 28 years of experience, Education - Moscow Topographic Polytechnic Technical School, St. Petersburg Higher Military Topographic Command School named after Army General A.I. Antonov, Military Engineering University named after V.V. Kuibyshev. Kuibyshev Military Engineering University.


    Газпром нефть


    • Location of the object of interest (coordinates, district name, region, shapefile, etc.);
    • Requirements for the survey period (period for which archive data can be used or the need for a new survey);
    • Forest classification level required for the forest inventory;
    • Determination of quantitative and qualitative characteristics necessary for the research.
    Execution time depends on the area of the territory, requirements to the survey parameters. The minimum execution time is 10 working days.
    100% prepayment on the invoice for RS materials after signing the contract, the rest of the payment after execution.
    Each case of studying a forested area is unique. This means that the considered situation regarding the object will be characterized by various indicators:

    • Composition of existing stands and their origin;
    • Form of green stands (single-layer or multi-layer);
    • Average tree height;
    • Stand structure in parks;
    • Average size of all growing trees, their completeness, and quality;
    • Forest type, forest management;
    • Undergrowth and regeneration characteristics;
    • Merchantable tree class;
    • Current timber stock.
    The average age is determined for each component tree species if the difference in age between the component and the dominant tree species is 15 years or more for middle-aged, old-growth, mature and overmature forest stands and 10 years or more for young-growth forest stands. When several component tree species or the whole forest stand is of the same age, the average age is determined and recorded for groups of the same-aged tree species or for the forest stand as a whole.
    Lands unsuitable for forest cultivation without special reclamation measures - swamps, rocks, hills, stony placers, sands, unforested steep slopes and other inconvenient lands; lands occupied by arable lands, hayfields, pastures; lands occupied by forest roads, permanent forest warehouses, clearings, fire breaks, routes of power lines, communication lines, pipelines and other linear facilities, peat mining, homesteads, facilities for processing harvested timber and other forest products and other lands.
    The harvesting areas that were set aside for clear-cutting during (for a year) forest inventory and were not cut before its completion are described by separate forest inventory sections as forest plantations, but with the indication "harvesting area" and the year of harvesting. The timber stock is not determined for them.
    When taxation of dead and damaged forest stands, the taxation characterization of viable and dead parts of the stand shall be given separately. At the same time, for the dead part of the stand, which retained marketable qualities of wood, the composition, age, average height, stock of liquid wood per 1 hectare, as well as the average diameter of the tree trunk and class of marketability for each component of the tree species shall be specified.
    Материалы таксации лесов вводятся в действие приказом уполномоченного органа исполнительной власти или органа местного самоуправления в пределах их полномочий, определенных в соответствии со статьями 81 - 84 Лесного кодекса Российской Федерации и статьей 10 Федерального закона от 4 декабря 2006 г. N 201-ФЗ "О введении в действие Лесного кодекса Российской Федерации". Допуск исполнителей работ к таксации лесов оформляется приказом по организации, выполняющей таксацию лесов, с приложением сличительных ведомостей контрольной таксации.
    If erosion processes are present, the type of erosion and its degree of development shall be indicated.
    At the forest inventory meeting prior to the start of works, the specifics of forest inventory in the object of works shall be determined and the following main technical and organizational issues shall be considered: requirements to the materials of geodetic and technical basis of forest taxation (topo maps, materials of aerial or space surveys); distribution of the taxation object area by categories and taxation methods; status of legal and in-kind registration of changes in the boundaries of the forest inventory object with adjacent land users, which occurred during the elapsed period since the last forest inventory (taxation works); recommendations on the formation of management units, farms and management sections; peculiarities of forest taxation; normative and reference materials used in forest inventory; availability of the scheme of transport development of forests, schemes of location and priority of creation, operation and reconstruction of existing and projected forest infrastructure facilities and facilities not related to the creation of forest infrastructure; other technical and organizational peculiarities of forest inventory works. At the forest inventory meeting upon completion of the works the results of forest inventory works are considered. Decisions made at the meetings are recorded in the minutes of forest inventory meetings.
    A forest taxation unit is a limited forest area, relatively homogeneous in terms of soil and soil conditions, qualitative and quantitative indicators of vegetation growing on it, the variability of which does not exceed the normative tolerances and determines the implementation of the same measures for the use, protection, defense and reproduction of forests on its entire area. Adjacent forest areas are divided into forest taxation sections by qualitative and (or) quantitative characteristics. Adjacent forest areas with heterogeneous characteristics may be combined into one forest taxation division if the area of one or two of them is less than the established minimum. As a right, such areas are joined to the type of forest conditions closest in terms of taxation characteristics or to the largest of the adjacent forest taxation divisions. In this case, differences in the values of timber stock per 1 hectare, completeness and composition factor of the prevailing species of the main and united forest-taxonomic division shall not exceed the limits of permissible errors in the determination of these indicators and change the designated management order for the largest (in terms of area) of the united forest-taxonomic divisions.
    Fallen forest plantations - areas where woody vegetation has died as a result of mass damage by harmful organisms, negative natural impacts (windthrow, windthrow, snow, waterlogging, washing away, etc.), emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere and other natural or anthropogenic impacts;
    Forest inventory is carried out using the age class method. The age class method consists in the formation of farms (coniferous, hard-leaved, soft-leaved), management sections, consisting of aggregates of forest stands homogeneous by species composition and productivity, territorially separated, but united by a single age. The primary accounting unit of forest taxation according to the age class method is a forest taxation unit, and the primary calculation unit is a management section. The duration of the age class interval is established for cedar, eastern spruce and Caucasian fir - 40 years, for other coniferous species and hardwoods of seed origin - 20 years, for softwoods and hardwoods of seed origin - 10 years, for fast-growing species - 5 years, for shrubs - 1 year.
    lands occupied by forest plantations of natural and artificial origin with a completeness of 0.4 and higher at the age of young trees and with a completeness of 0.3 and higher at the age exceeding the age of young trees
    Forest clearcutting is the delineation (delimitation) of the forest area to be subjected to clearcutting or thinning and its instrumental survey. On forest lands not covered with forest vegetation, forest inventory establishes tree species, bonitet class, forest type, which are determined by the type of forest conditions, adjacent forest plantations and are specified according to the documents of harvesting area allotment
    Cutting of trees of any age is allowed during forest inventory (cutting of model trees, cutting of boundaries of sample areas and making of poles when laying sample areas), creation of temporary economic objects (helipads, huts, bathhouses, sheds, benches and others) for the period of performance of the above works, provision of forest inventory services
    In order to ensure normative accuracy of glasometer-based forest inventory, 1 - 2 measurements of tree trunk cross-sectional areas and measurements of height and trunk diameter of medium-sized trees can be made at taxation points.
    Tree counting with a full-tometer is carried out by component tree species. To determine the average height of the main forest element (tree species, age generation, stand tier) and the most represented component tree species, instrumental height measurements of 3 - 5 trees close to the average are made at a forest taxation unit. If it is necessary to clarify the age, wood cores are taken from the same trees using an age drill. The data of all measurements at relascopic sites are recorded in the taxation card. The average height and average diameter of the stand are determined as arithmetic mean values of their measurements in the average trees of the forest element. The timber stock of a forest stand or a stand of a forest tier per 1 hectare is determined according to the procedure set out in paragraph 120 of this Instruction. Before laying circular enumeration plots of constant radius their radius is determined, the value of which depends on the completeness and average diameter of the stand on the forest taxation unit, the recommended radii of circular enumeration plots depending on the average diameter and completeness of the stand are specified in Annex 8 to this Instruction. On average, there should be at least 15 trees on one site. Tree enumeration at the sites is conducted by forest elements. The data of tree enumeration on circular plots established in a forest taxation unit shall be summarized and average taxation indices shall be calculated from them.

    Assessment of the sanitary and phytosanitary condition of forest stands is carried out in accordance with the Rules of Sanitary Safety in Forests, approved by the Government of the Russian Federation on June 29, 2007, N 414 (Collection of Laws of the Russian Federation, 2007, N 28, art. 3431), and other regulatory legal acts.

    In the presence of trees in forest stands damaged by harmful organisms, animals, atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises, and other negative factors, as well as recently dried natural fall, the timber stock of such trees per 1 hectare is determined. Additional information on the survey card indicates the reasons for the damage or types of harmful organisms, the merchantable quality of damaged and dried trees.

    In the survey of dead and damaged forest stands, a separate description is given for the living and dead parts of the stand. For the dead part of the stand, which retains merchantable timber qualities, the composition, age, average height, stock of salvageable timber per 1 hectare, average diameter of tree stems, and merchantable class for each component of the wood species are indicated.

    Remote satellite data contributes to forest inventory by providing valuable information on forest cover, tree species distribution, and canopy structure. Specific data obtained includes spectral signatures, vegetation indices, and spatial patterns, allowing for effective forest management, biodiversity assessment, and resource planning.
    High-resolution satellite imagery plays a crucial role in conducting detailed forest inventories by providing clear views of individual trees and stand characteristics. It aids in tree species identification, estimation of tree height and diameter, and assessment of forest density, supporting accurate and comprehensive forest inventory analysis.
    Remote sensing technologies assist in monitoring changes in forest structure by capturing data at different time points. This enables the detection of forest growth, disturbances such as wildfires or logging activities, and deforestation. Time-series analysis of satellite imagery helps track dynamic changes and assess the health of forest ecosystems.
    LiDAR technology enhances forest inventory assessments by providing detailed information about the vertical structure of forests. It accurately measures tree height, canopy density, and ground elevation, allowing for precise assessments of biomass, carbon stocks, and forest structure, contributing to more comprehensive forest inventories.
    The integration of GIS technology with remote satellite data enhances the efficiency of forest inventory management by providing a spatial context for the collected information. It allows for the creation of detailed maps, spatial analysis, and modeling of forest parameters. This integration offers benefits for decision-making in forest conservation, sustainable management, and land-use planning.


    License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 1)
    License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 1)
    License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 2)
    License for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities (page 2)
    Application for the license for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities
    Application for the license for implementation of geodetic and cartographic activities
    ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 1)
    ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 1)
    ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 2)
    ISO 9001:2015 Certificate of Conformity №СДС.ФР.СМ.00813.19 (page 2)


    We guarantee 100% quality in fulfilling the contract. By collaborating with Geoinnoter specialists, you eliminate risks and losses!

    We ensure that all work is conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Russia dated 29.03.2018 N 122 (as amended on 12.05.2020) "On Approval of the Forest Management Instruction" (Registered with the Ministry of Justice of Russia on 20.04.2018 N 50859), and Article 23 of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation dated 04.12.2006 N 200-FZ.

    Our team consists of experienced and qualified personnel who are proficient in using specialized software, providing a stable foundation for our guarantees!

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